CMOS Introduction
CMOS Amplifier
Amplifier characteristics
Output dynamic range
Bandwidth and rise time
Settling time and aberrations
Slew rate
Electronic amplifiers
Two-Stage Amplifier
Design  Of  OP-AMP
Design Of Two Stage OP-AMP

An ideal amplifier would be a totally linear device, but real amplifiers are only linear within certain practical limits. When the signal drive to the amplifier is increased, the output also increases until a point is reached where some part of the amplifier becomes saturated and cannot produce any more output; this is called clipping, and results in distortion.

Some amplifiers are designed to handle this in a controlled way which causes a reduction in gain to take place instead of excessive distortion; the result is a compression effect, which (if the amplifier is an audio amplifier) will sound much less unpleasant to the ear. For these amplifiers, the 1 dB compression point is defined as the input power (or output power) where the gain is 1 dB less than the small signal gain.










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