Human Face Recognition

Biometrics and Human biometrics characteristics


                  Biometrics are used to identify the identity of an input sample when compared to a template, used in cases to identify specific people by certain characteristics.

  • possession-based: using one specific "token" such as a security tag or a card
  • knowledge-based :the use of a code or password.

Standard validation systems often use multiple inputs of samples for sufficient validation, such as particular characteristics of the sample. This intends to enhance security as multiple different samples are required such as security tags and codes and sample dimensions.

 Common Human biometric characteristics

Classification of some biometric traits



Classification of some biometric traits:

                  Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes, as represented in figure on the right:


            Physiological are related to the shape of the body. The oldest traits, that have been used for more than 100 years, are fingerprints. Other examples are face recognition, hand geometry and iris recognition.

    Behavioral :

                   Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. The first characteristic to be used, still widely used today, is the signature. More modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of voice.

Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.

Other biometric strategies are being developed such as those based on gait (way of walking), retina, hand veins, ear recognition, facial thermogram, DNA, odor and palm prints.


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